Tips for writing academic papers
Practical guide for preparing academic papers according to ABNT standards
Tips for a good job
To avoid the plagiarism situation, the ideal is to refer to the books and articles used, that is, when writing the author’s ideas with his own words at work, not to mention it in his text, giving it due authorship
The best way to do a job that is capable of demonstrating your creative potential and ability is quite simple:
Observe ABNT standards for references (direct and indirect), with proper indication of authorship (author’s name, year of publication of the book and page).
Do not leave a paragraph with content without reference! Any definition, concept, argumentation or mathematical equation that are cited in the theoretical foundation must necessarily have a source as a reference.
The following is a summary of the ABNT standards for graphical presentation and citation presentation.
Graphic presentation (NBR 14724: 2005)
The graphic style is the responsibility of the author of the work, which must follow the ABNT standards.
- The texts must be presented in white paper, A4 format (21 cm x 29.7 cm), printed only on one side of the sheet (obverse)
- The font color should be black (except for the illustrations)
Use of fonts
a) source: “Times New Roman”, “Arial” or “Verdana”
b) cover title and cover sheet: fonts from 14 to 18
c) text body: source 12
d) title of the section or chapter: source 14
e) subtitle: source 12
f) footnote: source 10
g) bibliographical source of illustrations and tables: source 10
h) titles of illustrations and tables: font 11 negritado
i) long quotations: source 10.
- Page number: the page must appear in the upper right corner.
- Space 1.5 between rows, (can display 6 pt before and 6 pt later).
- Exceptions: Quotes from more than three lines, footnotes, references and captions of illustrations / tables will be typed in single spacing.
- The titles of the subsections must be separated from the text preceding them or be replaced by two spaces 1,5.
- Indent in the first line of the paragraph by 2.0 cm, that is, the paragraphs start eight inward spaces in relation to the left margin.
- Right justified text
- Margins: a) Left and Superior = 3,0 cm; b) Right and Bottom = 2.0 cm
- The titles of the chapters may be in capital letters, in bold type and in paragraph 14.
- Subtitles must be in lowercase (upper case only) and bold
- Textual citations with more than 3 lines: Retreat of 4,0 cm of the left margin, justified, single space, letter no 10.
- References must be complete: AUTHOR; Work, Edition, City, Publisher and Year.
- The references must be in alphabetical order by the surname of the author.
- Choose a single system to make references in the text body: Author-date system or References Footnotes.
- Numbering: All sheets from the title page must be counted, but not numbered. The numbering should be indicated from the INTRODUCTION in the upper right corner.
- Abbreviations and acronyms: When they appear for the first time in the text, their name must be extended, adding the acronym in parentheses.
- The acronyms that are part of the text of the monograph should appear in the first occurrence, indicating the full name in full, followed by the acronym in parentheses. From the second occurrence, use only the acronym.
- Chapters should always be started on a new page even if there is sufficient space on the page ending the previous chapter, the titles being centralized on the sheet and numbered in Roman numerals: Chapter I.
- Subtitles and subdivisions are written in a homogeneous way that enhance them properly; the spaces that separate them from the texts are larger and proportionate; are also numbered according to the technique of the punctuated numbers: 2.1, 2.1.1 etc. They do not need to start on a new page.
- To specify topics within these subdivisions, use letters or digits, enclosed in half-brackets: 1) a), etc., avoiding exaggerations with the formation of very long series of punctuated numbers.
Presentation of the citations (NBR 10520: 2002)
The author should choose which type of call to use, and the styles should not be mixed:
Author-date: when the call for quotation is made by the author’s last name and the date of publication
Numeric or footnote system: when the call is made by the corresponding number in the list of bibliographical references, previously alphabetized.
The citation is a mention, in the text, of information collected in documents searched. Its function is to support the reasoning of the author in the course of the work, its purpose is to exemplify, clarify, confirm, document, illustrate and sustain, etc. In other words, they are excerpts from works by other authors inserted throughout the text that give greater reliability to the work, clarifying or complementing what is being presented.
The citations can be: direct (textual) or indirect (free).
The direct ones consist of an exact transcription of part of the work of the consulted author. It is reproduced in double quotation marks exactly as it appears in the original, accompanied by information about the source, with page indication.
When up to three lines are inserted in the text, in quotation marks. Example:
“In Brazil, the professional study inhibits access to the university”. (FERRAZ, 1995, p.20).
When more than three lines, they should be an independent paragraph, indent 4 cm from the left margin (citation displacement), with a smaller font size than the one used in the text and with single spacing between lines, with the quotation marks missing. Example:
The teleconference allows the individual to participate in a national or regional meeting without the need to leave their place of origin. Among the common types of teleconferencing that deserve prominence in current times is the use of television, telephone and computer. (NICHOLS, 1993, p.181).
The indirect ones consist of the text based on the work of the consulted author. Also known as citation in summary, they are free of quotes, and must faithfully translate the meaning of the original text.